Exploring the use of arcade game elements for attitude change: Two studies in the aviation safety domain
Authors: Chittaro L., Buttussi F.
Published in: International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 127, July 2019, pp. 112-123.
Abstract: Gamification and serious games are increasingly employed for attitude change purposes. However, they frequently exploit a limited set of game elements, such as points, badges and leaderboards, and scarcely explore the use of more complex elements that make games engaging. In this paper, we focus on game elements from the arcade genre, and their use in serious games for attitude change. In particular, we propose a serious game for mobile devices that employs arcade game elements for attitude change in aviation safety, and we assess its effects with two different studies. The first study compares the immediate effects of the serious game vs. the traditional approach (safety card), showing that the game is more engaging and can improve attitudes towards aircraft emergencies in terms of users’ self-efficacy and perceived vulnerability to the risk. The second study assesses the effects of the serious game when used over time (1-week) in a naturalistic setting, showing that the game can engage users and increase knowledge about correct and wrong behaviors. In both studies, engagement turned out to play a mediating role that we analyze in detail.