Selecting Menu Items in Mobile Head-Mounted Displays: Effects of Selection Technique and Active Area
Authors: Chittaro L., Sioni R.
Published in: International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, vol. 35, 2019, pp. 1501-1516.
Abstract: Head-mounted displays (HMDs) are increasingly available to users after the launch of newgeneration consumer devices. Moreover, mobile HMDs such as Samsung Gear VR and Google Daydream View allow users to experience VR through a smartphone, without requiring connection to a PC. Commercial applications for mobile HMDs exploit different techniques to perform menu selection tasks. This paper contrasts the two most used techniques, i.e., dwell-based and touchpad-based selection, which were not experimentally compared before. We consider different versions of a menu pointing and selection task in which participants interacted with a Samsung Gear VR. Results show that participants were slower with the dwell-based technique rather than the touchpad-based technique. However, the dwell-based technique led to fewer errors and was perceived as more usable, more comfortable and less fatiguing than the touchpad-based technique. We also evaluated two different active areas for the selection, discussing the results.