Locomotion in Place in Virtual Reality: A Comparative Evaluation of Joystick, Teleport, and Leaning
Authors:Buttussi F., Chittaro L.
Published in:IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 27, no. 1, Jan. 2021, pp. 125-136.
Abstract:Recent VR head-mounted displays for consumers feature 3-DOF or 6-DOF head tracking. However, position tracking (when available) is limited to a small area. Moreover, in small or cluttered physical spaces, users can safely experience VR only by staying in place, standing or seated. Different locomotion techniques have been proposed to allow users to explore virtual environments by staying in place. Two in-place locomotion techniques, frequently employed in the literature and in consumer applications, are based on joystick and teleport. Some authors explored leaning with the aim of proposing a more natural in-place locomotion technique. However, more research is needed to understand the effects of the three techniques, since no user study thoroughly compared them all together on a variety of fundamental aspects. Therefore, this paper presents a comparative evaluation with 75 users, assessing the effects of the three techniques on performance, sickness, presence, usability, and different aspects of comfort. Performance of teleport was better than the other techniques, and performance of leaning was better than joystick. Teleport also caused less nausea than the other techniques. Unexpectedly, no significant differences were found for presence. Teleport received a higher usability score than the other techniques. Finally, the techniques had different effects on comfort that we discuss in detail.